Lettering; modes of writing in western Europe from antiquity to the end of the 18th century. by Hermann Degering Download PDF EPUB FB2
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Lettering; modes of writing in western Europe from antiquity to the end of the 18th century. [Hermann Degering]. Add tags for "Lettering; modes of writing in western Europe from antiquity to the end of the 18th century.". Be the first. Click to read more about Lettering; modes of writing in western Europe from antiquity to the end of the 18th century by Hermann Degering.
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[Hermann Degering]. Western calligraphy is the art of writing and penmanship as practiced in the Western world, especially using the Latin alphabet (but also including calligraphic use of the Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, as opposed to "Eastern" traditions such as Turko-Perso-Arabic, Chinese or Indian calligraphy).
A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is "the art of giving form to signs in an. Ancient Roman styles Rustic capitals.
The Latin and vernacular handwriting of western Europe descends in a nearly unbroken line to the present day from the 1st century ad. The script used throughout the Roman Empire for books and occasionally for formal documents is known as rustic capitals.
The pen used to write this script was cut with a. Writing manuals and copybooks (16th to 18th century). From the 16th through 18th centuries two types of writing books predominated in Europe: the writing manual, which instructed the reader how to make, space, and join letters, as well as, in some books, how to choose paper, cut quills, and make ink; and the copybook, which consisted of pages of writing models to be copied as practice.
In Antiquity the letter was defined as a conversation between absent friends. This "familiar letter" was rediscovered during the early Renaissance, eventually leading to a revolution in epistolography.
However, as Latin was a prestigious language learnt at school by reading masters of eloquence, it was less suited to the plain style than the vernacular, which started dominating letter-writing.
Before the invention of the envelope in the 19th century an essential part of a letter was the seal, which could be made of a colored flour disc called a wafer or costlier sealing wax.
18th century newspapers ads placed by stationers frequently advertised both, along with paper, pens, ink, reading glasses, and other writing essentials.
Until the end of the 18th century, a strange but widespread opinion dominated that the Glagolitic writing system, which was in use in Dalmatia and Istria along with neighboring islands, including the translation of the Holy Scripture, owe their existence to the famous church father St. Jerome.
The early modern period was a great golden age of letters and letter writing in many parts of the Atlantic world. The 18th century in particular saw a flourishing of the epistolary genre across numerous settings.
Letter-writing manuals taught elite and commoner alike how to craft a wide variety of letters. Black letter, also called Gothic script or Old English script, in calligraphy, a style of alphabet that was used for manuscript books and documents throughout Europe—especially in German-speaking countries—from the end of the 12th century to the 20th century.
It is distinguished by a uniform treatment of vertical strokes that end on the baseline (e.g., in b or l), the use of angular lines. The Republic of Letters (Respublica literaria) is the long-distance intellectual community in the late 17th and 18th centuries in Europe and the fostered communication among the intellectuals of the Age of Enlightenment, or philosophes as they were called in France.
The Republic of Letters emerged in the 17th century as a self-proclaimed community of scholars and literary figures. Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to is the design and execution of lettering with a broad-tipped instrument, brush, or other writing instrument.: 17 A contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious, and skillful manner".: 18 Modern calligraphy ranges from functional.
The title of Susan Whyman’s The Pen and the People: English Letter Writers suggests two potentialities at once: The Pen and the People indicates a comprehensive study of popular letters and letter-writing practices during the long 18th century (–); yet the subtitle, English Letter Writers, implies focused and discrete analyses of specific letter writers.
Click to read more about Lettering, a series of plates illustrating modes of writing in western Europe from antiquity to the end of the 18th century por Hermann Degering.
LibraryThing is a cataloging and social networking site for booklovers. Blackletter (sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately until the 17th century.
It continued to be commonly used for the Danish language untiland for German, Estonian and Latvian until the s. Fraktur is a notable script of this type, and sometimes the entire group of. Literally, palaeography means ‘old writing’, from the Greek words ‘paleos’ = old, and ‘grapho’ = write.
It is generally used nowadays to describe reading old handwriting, rather than its original meaning of interpretation of ancient scripts. We are now so used to reading print that it is becoming increasingly rare to have to read – or. Perhaps – million copies may have been turned out during the sixteenth century and 1, million copies were printed in the eighteenth century, feeding on and nourished by the growing literacy.
26 The writing of familiar letters became commonplace among the middling and upper classes of north-western Europe. There is far more to the development of writing than can fit in a brief history of writing instruments, but even a quick survey of styli, quills and dip pens can illustrate how writing technology — and even the shapes of the letters themselves — have been influenced by the materials and technologies available.
The writing implement used depends largely on the writing surface, so different. Letterwriting in Renaissance England, part of the Exhibitions at the Folger opened on Novem and closed April 2, The exhibition was curated by Alan Stewart, Guest Curator, and Heather Wolfe, Curator of Manuscripts.
It could be argued that the letter was the single most important genre of the Renaissance: not merely one literary form among many (though it was that too). The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and gh the systems differ in appearance, all three are unicase, their letters share the same names and alphabetical order, and are written horizontally from left to the three scripts, Mkhedruli, once the civilian royal script of the Kingdom of Georgia and.
History of the Western European Alphabet In the book Alphabet: The History, Evolution, and Design of the Letters We Use Today, Allan Haley writes: “Writing is words made visible. In the broadest sense, it is everything—pictured, drawn, or arranged—that can be turned into a spoken account.
The fundamental purpose of writing is to convey ideas. Haskala, also spelled Haskalah (from Hebrew sekhel, “reason,” or “intellect”), also called Jewish Enlightenment, a late 18th- and 19th-century intellectual movement among the Jews of central and eastern Europe that attempted to acquaint Jews with the European and Hebrew languages and with secular education and culture as supplements to traditional Talmudic studies.
The book offers a history of the development of letter writing in ancient Greece from the archaic to the early Hellenistic period. At the end of the fifth and beginning of the fourth century a turning point in epistolography takes place, as an epistolary language appropriate to, and standard for, private communication is developed.
Highlighting the specificity of letter-writing, as opposed to. Western architecture - Western architecture - Classicism, – The classicism that flourished in the period – is often known as “Neoclassicism,” in order to distinguish it, perhaps unnecessarily, from the Classical architecture of ancient Rome or of the Renaissance.
The search for intellectual and architectural truth characterized the period. (In the 18th century, modern. Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with symbols. Writing systems are not themselves human languages (with the debatable exception of computer languages); they are means of rendering a language into a form that can be reconstructed by other humans separated by time and/or space.
While not all languages utilize a writing system, those. In the midth century, Paris became the center of philosophic and scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines and dogmas.
The philosophical movement was led by Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who argued for a society based upon reason as in ancient Greece rather than faith and Catholic doctrine, for a new civil order based on natural law, and for science based on experiments.
By the end of the 19th century, the spread of European imperialism had made many areas of the world “safe” for women travelers. As a result the volume of women’s writing increased significantly, so there is a wide range of texts to choose from.
Antiquity – AD. Gustav Droysen, Allgemeiner historischer Handatlas in 96 Karten mit erläuterndem Text Bielefeld [u.a.]: Velhagen & Klasing Historical atlas digitized by Monumenta Germaniae Historica. (Tribal migrations through 18th century; facsimile maps with commentary, mainly of Germany and Europe).This book is a collection of Voltaire’s observations of England, a country where he lived a few years in exile.
It’s written with Voltaire’s singular wit and intelligence, and caused a flurry of controversy in France on it’s publication because Voltaire’s homeland is compared to England throughout the letters, and, for the most part, England comes out ahead in these comparisons/5().